Vəfa Əliyev Xanoğlan oğlu filologiya elmi üzrə fəlsəfə doktoru. Dosent.
The people`s artist Ilyas Afandiyev is one of the prominent masters who played an important role in the literary process of 1930-1990s with his both personality and original creative activity. During the time when principles and habits of socialist realism existed in literature and theoretical methodology our talented master inserted a new breath into literary process with his creative activity. In spite of normative schemes of the Soviet regime the people`s artist revealed in his works morals, inner life, feelings and human vaules of a man.
Professor Shamil Salmanov`s scientific thought is more exact: "I. Afandiyev not only presented in his works advanced and brave tendencies of this process, even all his creative activity had an influence on the modern literary process and directed it".
Ilyas Afandiyev is a master who has a special place in development of Azerbaijani prose, drama, literary language and theatre art of the XX century. Our great master never was a member of the Communist Party during the Soviet Union and he was proud of it. Being a proud personality he did not cringe before predominant ideology of the time, he didn`t like to hold a post (even he refused posts offered him), the arm-chair in his study was for him the one of the highest post. As a result none of his works met principles of predominant political ideology of the time.
I.Afandiyev`s prose destroyed sociological pattern of the soviet prose, he created one which rejected aesthetic dogmata of socialist realism and personified people`s life from the standpoint of national and moral interests. The people`s writer brought lyric and psychological style in our literature. A new generation of producers, actors, composers and artists was formed due to I.Afandiyev`s dramatic works. Philosophical, aesthetic and artistic freshness of "I.Afandiyev theatre" has have an influence on forming of readers and audience`s patriotism and aesthetic taste up to now. In his works and interviews I.Afandiyev with orginal bravery personified our freedom and national independence. Thus he became a classic of Azerbaijani literature of the XX century.
With his strong personality and rich creative activity he showed his contemporaries, especially writers and poets, in general intellectuals an example of national master`s culture. His life and personality itself are a literary and historical epoch.
Elchin writes: "In Ilyas Afandiyev`s works his bravery to novelty, new themes and psychological profundity was based on his talent, but in his life his bravery was based on features of his character."
In writer`s works heroes` inner lives, feelings, sadness and gladness were depicted with great artistry. These heroes always live with feeling of novelty. They elucidate people`s moral life of with their actions. The academician Bakir Nabiyev correctly notes that "I.Afandiyev`s works differed from ones which lyingly praised Lenin, Stalin, socialism and the party. His works presented and glorified literary, national and moral values, great human ideals."
I.Afandiyev brought lyric and psychological style to Azerbaijani prose of the XX century. He was the first among writers who created literary and philosophical bases of new Azerbaijani prose in the end of the 50s. I.Afandiyev`s "Willow channel" side by side with M.Huseyn`s "Underground rivers fall into a sea", M.Ibrahimov`s "Great support", I.Huseynov`s "Burning heart" and S.Ahmadli`s "Arshin of the world" saved prose from the grip of sociological dogmata, and put national morals against soviet moral standards.
I.Afandiyev differed from above-mentioned writers because they couldn`t be completely saved from sociological style, but he created poetics of a new prose with his persistent will. His prose was a literary and philosophical example for generation of 60s. In the XX century during the soviet period when all literature glorified victory of the socialism and legendary communism, I.Afandiyev entered the man`s soul with his light romantic steps, won it and saved this MAN from grip of sociological dogmata.
I.Afandiyev created on the stage the world with his dramatic works which have won heart of the Azerbaijani audience for ever. The Soviet ideology couldn`t enter that "crystal palace" because its ruler was a MAN, national Azerbaijani Turk, who kept purity of his inner life. During his 60-year creative activity Ilyas Afandiyev wrote six novels, as "William Channel" (1958),"Builders of the bridge" (1960), "Three freinds behind mountains"(1963), "A tale about Sarikoynek and Valeh" (1976), "Don't turn, old man" (1980), "A three – barrelled" (1981), five stories as "Letters from village" (1939), "Clear nights" (1941), "Master of the land"(1952), "Death of Gachag Suleyman"( 1993), "A tale about Khan's daughter Gulsanubar and tar player Sadigjan" (1996), 47 short stories a lot of essays and memoirs.
I.Afandiyev wrote 20 plays. His 19 plays were staged on the scene of Academic National Drama Theatre. They have greatly influenced the development of modern theatre thinking. Azerbaijani theatre poetics has found its artistic and aesthetic essence in "Ilyas Afandiyev theatre".
Prominent literary critics, theorists and art workers wrote monumental monographs, research works, scientific and theoretical articles about I Afandiyev's creative activity and notices on his plays. They investigated and appreciated creative activity of the great master in the context of historical fate of our people. As a great personality I.Afandiyev kept his phenomenon during all his life. I.Afandiyev`s patriotism, courage, kindness, truthfulness, affection for literature and art and his works have immortalized his name.
Though he wrote his first short stories much more earlier, I.Afandiyev entered the history of literature during the hardest period of the XX century, in 1939 with his book "Letters from village". It was the period of repressions for writers and critics, treachery and denunciation. During that period I.Afandiyev entered the literature with his will and belief, talent and personality. When not only the word but the man himself lost his value, I.Afandiyev managed to raise respect for the word and direct attention and direction of literary thinking to a man`s personality, his inner and moral life. When totalitarian regime fell and it became possible to enter the archives it became known that I.Afandiyev was recognized as faultless and honest. So, he didn`t cringe before severe ideology and remained a national writer. I.Afandiyev never was a member of the Communist Party. In his works he many times reminded torments given by the Bolsheviks to his family. I.Afandiyev who always loved by the people didn`t cringe before predominent ideology of the time. There were also ideological attacks on the writer. Some of his works were unjustly criticized. But he remained true to his credo. He continued his creative activity with belief and persistence. The people`s love for the great writer stregthened that belief and persistence. Elchin writes: "I didn`t see that Ilyas Afandiyev had ever signed "an exposure" letter (it was a "literary genre" widely spread during that period) for what he would be sorry later. Those who know literary and social life of that time can better appreciate this fact (and they do it!). But there are writings which expose him". It is the fact that the only letter which defended our great dramatist H.Javid was written by the people's artist Ilyas Afandiyev: "Javid must be discharged, because the people love him all the same, don't forget him, he entered their hearts and it is impossible to put him out of their hearts. If Javid is discharged spirit of patriotism will be raised in the republic…". Once I.Afandiyev`s uncle, the famous theater worker Jalil bey Bagdadbeyov refused to sign the document which exposed Rza Tahmasib as a people's enemy and struck paper and a pencil in the man's face who insisted on it.
Critical articles of the dramatist, especially connected with drama, theatre and cinema art are devoted to cultural problems. He wrote large philosophical essays about art workers too. His articles and reviews devoted to art and cultural problems are distinguished with literary and aesthetic weighty, actuality and meaning. 95 articles and 14 interviews of the writer have been included into the seventh volume of his selected works.
I Afandiyev's drama formed a new generation of producers and actors in history of our theatre. Prominent art workers proudly speak about exceptional role of this great personality and his drama in their successes. Theme of the South Azerbaijan is a special object of the research in the dramatist`s creative activity. This theme for the first time found its stage impersonation with the play "I can`t forget". In literature and history of social thinking this theme appeared on the stage during the forbidden period. Though much pressure was put upon this play, it was in repertoire during 17 years and had more than 500 stagings.
The main line in I.Afandiyev`s historical dramas is a heroic motive. His historical dramas created in 70-90s of the last century such as "The song stayed in the mountains" (1971), "Natavan" (1881), "Sheykh Khiyabani" (1986), "Meeting of the lovers in the hell" (1989), "A lonely willow tree" (1991), "The mad and the clevers" (1992), "The ruler and his daughter"(1994) are connected with approach to history with a new thinking, new treatment, struggle of our people for their freedom and independence.
Ilyas Afandiyev is a master who has a special place in development of Azerbaijani prose, drama, literary language and theatre art. The great writer highly appreciated literary language and the Word: "Role of writers and poets in development of our literary language is great. For a writer a language is an exponent of his heart. A writer must use words intelligible for everyone.
Works created by the people's spirit and living language always gain national love".
I.Afandiyev is master who is always loved and read. With original mastership he criticized "writers" who created "works" with the order of predominant ideology during the Soviet period. The writer greatly hoped for the future of Azerbaijan: "… My hope for the future of Azerbaijan is great. Because the Azerbaijani people's love for their country and Motherland is eternal. Today is a period of the people`s patriotism storm with a new strength." I.Afandiyev who always glorified in his works our people`s struggle for national freedom and independence was the first writer to get the State Order of Azerbaijan. Our great master devoted 60 years of his 82-year life to creative activity. His various and ever modern works call us for national and moral unity with their philosophical and aesthetic freshness and meaning.